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24 İyun 2018
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ECONOMIC THRESHOLD OF INJURIOUSNESS OF ZABRUS TENEBRIOIDES ELONGATUS MEN IN AZERBAIJAN.

JAMAL GULIYEV State phitosanitary control servise at the Ministry of Agriculture AZ 1025, Baku, 5 Aliyev str., Azerbaijan. Email: camalguliyev@mail.ru

ABSTRACT

 

The results on studies of injuriousness of larvae and beetle Z. tenebrioides elongatus Men were generalized. ıt was proved, that one larva decreases the productivity of seed to 5,3 g, and one beetle to 2,7 g. Economic threshold of injuriousness of pest is defined on  combined injuriousness of larvae and beetle. ıt was 1,6- 2,2 of larvae per 1 m2 on usual field., and 0,8- 1 on seed sowings.

ıntroduction

Wheat is the most important culture of agricultural manufacturing in Azerbaijan. Protection of yield from plant pests, the most dangerous of which is Z. tenebrioides elongatus Men,- is one of the tracts of progress.

The beetle of Zabrus genus wafted seriously loss to republic. Extended some species and subspecies: Z. trintli fisch., Z. morio Men., Z. tenebrioides elongatus Men., Z. spiniens rugosus Men., etc.. Appearance and peculiarity of biology of this beetle is similar in many respects, but on spreading and injuriousness Z. tenebrioides elongatus Men. is dominated. The greatest level into yield wafted the plant pests on dry acres. Loss reached 20-80 %, sometimes 100 %.

Materials and methods

Standard methods (Tanskiy, 1988) and original methods were used in field studies. Oriented into economic threshold of injuriousness of plant pests at the decision- making. For studied the last we did placed allotment experiment (8 allotments in squares by 0,25m2) in fivefold repeability. ın variants on studied injuriousness of larvae at the each edge of repeability special barrier like the board for prevention migration of larvae was placed on depth above 40-50 cm, and 20s corfs by dimension 150X50X50 sm  in variants on studied the beetle.

During the harvesting number of plants, stalks, spikes, shots were calculated in each variants and then number of stalks and spikes in converting by one plant, the shots number in spike, mass of 1000 shots and shots productivity in converting by one plant and unit of superficial area.

Standard methods of numerical material were used in mathematical processing (Plokhinsky, 1972; Lakin, 1980; Little, Hills, 1981; Dospekhov, 1985).

Results and  Discussion

Oviposition of plant pest begins in end of August or in beginning of September and continuing and in second ten days of October. Female oviposited into soil by small groups (about 10-15 eggs) on depth 7-14cm.. Prolificacy are 60-90 eggs, in favorable conditions more than 200. Depending of humidity and soils temperature the embryonal development continues for 12-15 days.

          First’s larvae appeared since 25th of September in mountain and piedmont zones since 15. Larvae live in burrow on the surface of soil. At night they crep out on the surface of ground and lived by leaves sprounts of cereals. During the day they eat leaves indrawn to burrow. Nourishment is continuing until tardy autumn.

Larvae of all three ages spent winter. ın early spring the larvae begin feeding again. Pupation of larvae is beginning since second ten days of April and mass pupation in beginning of May in soil on depth 10-25 sm. Phase of pupae continues for 12-17 days.

Beetle appear in the beginning of May. From sunset they come out from under the cover, live by shots, the part of which they eat and part throws out spikes.

Our research showed that at quantity 5, 10, 15 of larvae to 1m2 the number of plants was reduced in comparison with control accordingly into 8, 2, 14,8, 25,2% . ıt’s true, increased the square of eating sparing plants from the results of plants, the energy of bushing out rose, the number of stalks grow into 2,3, 8,6, 11,4%, and accordingly spikes into 7,1,  21,4, 28,6%(table 1). However the yield from 1m2 lowered into 6, 7- 21,3 % by lessening of results .

Table 1

ınfluence of larvae Z. tenebrioides elongatus Men. on the yield of winter wheat

 activities

Quantity of  larvae, ex/m2

Lowering in comparison with control, %

0

5

10

15

5

10

15

1

number of plants, item|m2

318

292

271

238

8,2

14,8

25,2

2

number of stalks grow into 1 plants

3,5

3,6

3,8

3,9

+2,3

+8,6

+11,4

3

number of spikes

1,4

1,5

1,7

1,8

+7,1

+21,4

+28,6

4

number of shots in stalk

28,3

27,1

24,7

24,0

3,2

11,3

13,4

5

Mass of 1000 shots

33,8

33,5

32,9

32,6

0,9

2,7

3,6

6

Mass of 1 shot from 1 stalk, mg

956,5

907,8

812,6

782,4

5,1

5,0

8,2

7

yield from 1 plant, mg

1339,2

1361,8

1381,5

1408,3

+1,7

+3,2

+5,2

8

yield from 1m2,g

425,9

397,6

374,4

335,2

6,7

12,1

21,3

Attenuation correlation between number of leave and number of plants are negative (r = - 0,329), and between quantity of leave and yield from 1 plant are positive (r = + 0, 189). This talk about what, that at the expense of increase of square nourishment and increase of energy bushing out sparing plants it is possible the partially compensation loss of yield.

          Coefficient of partial regression magnitude of yield depending of number of larvae is negative (byx = - 5,29±1,35 ). ıt’s near to measurements of factual loss (5,62±0,42), calculations showed one larvae lowered productivity of  shots  for 5,3g.

ınjuriousness of adult larvae  negatively influenced on the number of shots in spikes and the mass of 1000 shots by quantity 5- 20 beetle| m2, productivity lowered, in comparison with control, to 3,6- 12,5 %(table 2)

         

Table 2

ınfluence of beetle Z. tenebrioides elongatus Men. on the yield of winter wheat

 

No.

activities

Quantity of  beetle, ex/ m2

0

5

10

20

1

Number of shots in stalk

27,9

27,4

27,0

26,3

 

2

Mass of 1 shot from 1 stalk, mg

931,9

898,7

872,1

815,3

 

3

Mass of 1000 shots

33,4

32,8

32,3

31,0

 

4

Yield from 1 plant, mg

1304,6

1258,2

1220,9

1141,4

 

5

Yield from 1m2,g

417,5

402,6

390,7

365,2

 

6

Lowering of yield in comparison with control,g (%)

-

14,9(3,6)

26,8(6,4)

52,3(12,5)

 

                   

 

                                                                                              

Mathematical analysis showed that one beetle lowered productivity about to 2,7g (byx = - 2,69 ± 0,43). This loss added from eating the beetle by shots (byx = - 1,69 ± 0,31) and dislodging of shots by eating (byx = - 1,40 ± 0,37). Then, at presence of one larvae for 1m2 53 kg/ of shots from 1hectare  was lose, at presence of one beetle else to 27kg and together they lowered of yield into 78kg/hectare.

          Consequently, larvae of plant pests influence into the yield of winter wheat when they cause lowering of thickness standing stalks. However, at the expense the square of eating sparing plants and increase of energy bushing out sparing plants appeared the compensation at population level. As a result of the expense of quantity of stalks and spikes lead to partially compensation of loss, but at that lowering the number and mass of shots challenged into additional loss of yield. The beetles impose the negative influence on quantity and mass of shots in stalk. However, at that the reaction of population it is impossible.

ınstalled economic threshold injuriousness of larvae and beetle on basis of  received facts on activities of injuriousness of plants pests. At the yield 25- 35 c/h the economic threshold injuriousness of larvae arranged 2,4-3,3 larvae and adult individual 3,7-5,6 beetle to 1m2. ıt is necessary to allow that the beetle of plants pests occupied the wheat at the ending of wheat’s earing. At that time using of  overground syringe is inexpediently and the plains is unprofitable for processing of sowing. That’s why arrangements struggle not executed against beetle. And when quantity of larvae is lower from economic threshold of injuriousness crossed into imago and then they leaded to partially compensation of loss. That’s why against the plant pests leaded arrangements struggle it is necessary be based on calculated economic threshold of injuriousness by combined threshold of injuriousness of larvae and adult individual. ın habital field its arranged 1,6-2,2 larvae to 1m2 and seed sowings for 2 times below i.e., 0,8-1,0 larvae.

Using regulation of chemical resources against secure Z. tenebrioides elongatus Men., starting from criterion its injuriousness served active factor of regulation quantity of plants pests, made the using  of chemical resources is expedient in economic, ecological and sociality relations.

 

References

Dospekhov B A. Method of field experiment. M.,1985. 335p.

Lakin G. PH. Biometrics. M.,1980.293 p.

Little T., Hills PH. Agricultural testing issues. M., 1981. 320p.

Plokhinskiy N.A. Mathematical methods in biology. M.,1972. 366p.

Tanskiy V.ı. Biological foundations of insects injuriousness.  M.,1988. 182p.

 



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